The stages of chronic kidney disease is according to different renal function index like glomerular filtration rage, endogenous creatinine clearance rate and serum creatinine level and etc.Through these index,we can learn patients’ chronic kidney disease stage,then make sure the prevention and treatment goal and take reasonable treatment measure.
The first stage:inflamed injury stage
1. Pathological changes. This stage only means the damage of renal cells, renal tissue’s ischemia and hypoxia. Local changes of glomerulars: mesangial cell proliferation, mesangial matrix increasing, charge barrier injury, permeability enhancement, etc.Once the effective treatment is missed at this stage, the kidney disease will enter the refractory stage.
2. Clinical symptoms: slight eyelid edema in the morning, increased urine foam, unstable blood pressure, occult blood, urine protein, etc., with blood creatinine being higher than 133 umol/L.
The second stage is renal injury
1. Pathological changes: Due to delayed treatment at the stage of inflammed injury, glomerular become sclerosis; tubular shrink and atrophy;and renal tissue fibrosis occurred, which resulted in the gradual reduction of renal units, aggravated progressive renal function injury, and progressive deterioration of the disease.
2. Clinical manifestations: increased blood pressure, dizziness, headache, loss of appetite, anemia and fatigue, cool limbs, edema, increased nocturnal urination, increased foam, etc.Renal volume began to shrink, blood flow of both kidneys decreased, filtration function decreased, excretion function delayed, creatinine clearance rate decreased, blood creatinine being over 186 mol/L, creatinine, urea nitrogen, uric acid and urine protein began to rise, getting azotemia, etc.
Stage 3, renal failure (the advanced stage is uremia)
1. Case changes. Due to ineffective control of renal fibrosis and renal damage, glomerular sclerosis is aggravated, glomerular atrophy and necrosis, renal unit depletion, severe renal function loss, and renal failure (uremia in the late stage).
failure, digestive tract hemorrhage, renal bone disease and so on, serum creatinine being over 451 mu mol/L, uremia period even as high as more than 1000 mu mol/L.Creatinine clearance is less than 20 ml/min, even 10 ml/min at uremia period , severe anemia, high blood pressure, electrolyte imbalance and acid-base balance disorders, excretion disorder, no urine, double renal severe fibrosis and so on, a lot of toxic urine retention in the body, harm the body organs.2. Clinical manifestations. Other system appear serious complications, such as heart
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